Real-time PMU Simulator for the Extra-high Voltage Grid
Operator training simulator architectures are continually updated to improve speed and accuracy. The RTDS based system presented here allows for complete electromechanical and electromagnetic dynamic simulation in real-time with realistic latency between operator action and system response visualization. The figure presents a diagram of the overall architecture. The individual components of the simulator are described below the components.
RTDS was developed at the Manitoba HVDC Research Center to solve modeled systems in real-time. The RSCAD RunTime interface permits operator-in-loop commands. Simulation results are sent over the network per the C37.118 standard data stream format and received at a standard openPDC server implementation where phasor data streams are concentrated and passed on to the main RTDMS data server. Individual RTDMS clients connect to the main server to display the simulation results in real-time. This allows operators to take full advantage of the abilities provided by the RunTime interface.
The system modeled in RTDS reflects measured parameters from the DVP EHV grid. The final model has over 200 three-phase buses, almost 90 individual generator models, 145 three-phse transmission lines, and over 100 PMUs. Simulation scenario scripts include a no-event run, a variety of line faults, multiple contingency runs, and islanded buses. Many more scenarios can be easily crafted and recorded for future playback using only the RunTime interface.
 Micah J. Till, Jerel A. Culliss, R. Matthew Gardner, Emanuel E. Bernabeu, M. Kyle Thomas, and Yilu Liu, "A real-time operator training simulator for PMU visualization and EHV grid control," 2014 CURENT Industry Conference, Knoxville, TN, May 2014.